Copyright & Disclaimers


Unless otherwise indicated, content on this site was created by the USDA/APHIS/PPQ Center for Plant Health Science and Technology (CPHST) through its cooperative agreement with the University of Maryland (UMD), Department of Entomology. The content may be freely distributed or copied as content in the public domain except where otherwise indicated. However, it is requested that in any subsequent use of the work, the authors, UMD, USDA/APHIS/PPQ/CPHST and USDA/ARS/SEL, be given appropriate acknowledgement (see below).

This site also includes content created by other individuals or institutions. This content may be copyrighted and is properly credited at each occurrence. Users must seek permission from the appropriate copyright owners to use this material. Please see the credits page for image credit information.


While the authors have made every effort to provide accurate information, they and all parts of the USDA and UMD specifically disclaim all legal liability with respect to the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information contained in AphID. The authors and associated institutions shall assume no legal liability for any damages, including direct, indirect, consequential, compensatory, special, punitive, or incidental damages arising from or relating to the use of AphID or the information and materials provided by or linked to from AphID.

Some pages on this site provide links to other sites for the convenience of users. The authors, UMD, USDA/APHIS/PPQ/CPHST, and USDA/ARS/SEL are not responsible for the availability or content of these external sites, nor do they endorse or warrant the products, services, or information described or offered by these other sites.

Mention of trade names or commercial products in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the USDA. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.